A Cantata is a form of vocal music, usually with instrumental accompaniment, similar in sound to a diminished oratorio. Cantatas can be secular or sacred. Sacred cantatas played a central role in the Lutheran church.
The chorale is a German-Protestant hymn. In efforts to coerce the congregation into more participation, musician, composer, and religious reformer Martin Luther wrote the first known chorales in the early 16th century.
The Overture is an introduction into a more dramatic musical performance such as an opera or ballet. Some overtures are used in concert as a complete stand alone composition. Early overtures began with a fast moving style..